Thursday, November 20, 2008

List of Words of Hindu Religious Origin

Hinduism and its Wisdom

Over the period of time Hinduism, an ancient religion from India, have passed their wisdom to the entire world. The Western countries in general and the English speaking countries in particular have duly recognized the value of this oriental wisdom known as ‘Vedas’. The ancient Sanskrit Vedic texts include Vedic Astronomy, Vedic Mathematics, Vedic Philosophy, Astrology, Ayurveda and so on. In the recent past western countries are showing enormous interest in Ashtanga Yoga (or its other derivative forms), Bhagavad-Gita, Bharata Natyam, Classical Music and of course our spices and cookery.

British Raj and Colonial Missionary

One could trace the history of English vocabulary from the history of British relationships with other cultures. Around 1610s the Christian missionaries adopted bilingualism to preach their religion. Biligualism means functional relationship between languages. The relationship of English with Hindi, Urdu and sanskrit was willingly legitimized by prominent spokesmen in India. In due course these spokesmen in India thought that English would open the way for people to find out about scientific developments of the West. In the mean time colonial English lexicographers have started to adopt words mostly associated with Hindu Religion into English. The Oxford English Dictionary did the pioneering job in compilation of Hindi words. Then the Urdu words got adopted into English. Sanskrit words, a divine language always associated with holy Hindu literature, were adopted later. The list of Sanskrit words compiled with the purpose to communicate the apt meaning to those who does not have familiarity with Hinduism and India.

I have compiled 108 words. The list is partial and not complete. I have used the dictionaries mentioned under ‘source’. If some one is interested in adding some more, they are most welcome.

1) Acura (n) Acarya (Sometimes Spelled Acharya In English) (n) Sanskrit A Preceptor, Instructor; Cf. Guru
2) Aditya (n) Sanskrit Āditya, The Vedic Sun God.
3) Agni (n) Sanskrit Agnih, Which Means "Fire".
4) Ahimsa (n) (Sanskrit) the Hindu and Buddhist doctrine of refraining from harming any living being
5) Amrita (n) Sanskrit Amrtam, Nectar Of Everlasting Life.
6) Annapurna (n) (Sanskrit) 1. Consort Of Shiva 2. Highest peak 26,504 feet (8078 meters)
7) Antarloka (n) "Inner or In-Between World."
8) Anubhava (n) Anubhava Direct Perception; Personal Spiritual Experience.
9) Arya (n) Sanskrit Ārya. Arya (Aryan): One Who Is An Arya-Literally, "One Who Strives Upward." Both Arya And Aryan Are Exclusively Psychological Terms Having Nothing Whatsoever To Do With Birth, Race, Or Nationality. In His Teachings Buddha Habitually Referred To Spiritually Qualified People As "The Aryas." Although In English Translations We Find The Expressions: "The Four Noble Truths," And "The Noble Eightfold Path," Buddha Actually Said: "The Four Aryan Truths," And "The Eightfold Aryan Path." Aryan
10) Asana (n) Sanskrit asana manner of sitting any of various yogic postures
11) Ashram (n) Sanskrit, 1: a secluded dwelling of a Hindu sage ; also : the group of disciples instructed there 2: a religious retreat
12) Asura (n) Sanskrit A-Sura, Which Means "Negation Of Sura God ", Ie Someone Who Have Demonish Qualities Or Someone Who Is Against God .

13) Atma (n) The Essential Divinity, Or Light Of Consciousness, In Each Individual; Often Translated Into English As “Self”. See Brahman.
14) Aum/Om, (n) Sanskrit a mantra consisting of the sound \\ˈōm\\ and used in contemplation of ultimate reality
15) Avatar (n) Sanskrit 1: the incarnation of a Hindu deity (as Vishnu)2 a: an incarnation in human form b: an embodiment (as of a concept or philosophy) often in a person
16) Ayurveda (n) Sanskrit āyurvedaḥ, from āyuḥ life, vital power + vedaḥ knowledge. A form of holistic alternative medicine that is the traditional system of medicine of India
17) Bhagavad-Gita (n) Sanskrit Bhagavadgītā, literally, song of the blessed one (Krishna). A Hindu devotional work in poetic form
18) Bhakti (n) Sanskrit devotion to a deity constituting a way to salvation in Hinduism
19) Bodily Humor (n) Anglo-saxon a fluid or juice of an animal or plant; specifically: one of the four fluids entering into the constitution of the body and determining by their relative proportions a person's health and temperament. An English Equivalent Of The Ayurvedic Term Dosha, Which Names Three Fundamental Interbalancing Principles Or Constituents Of The Human Constitution.
20) Brahma (n) Sanskrit brahman 1 : the creator god of the Hindu sacred triad — compare
shiva , vishnu 2 : the ultimate ground of all being in Hinduism
21) Brahman (n) Sanskrit brāhmaṇa 1 a: a Hindu of the highest caste traditionally assigned to the priesthood; 3 usually Brahmin : a person of high social standing and cultivated intellect and taste.
22) Brahman (n) 1 (also Brahmin) a member of the highest Hindu caste, that of the priesthood. 2 (also Brahma) the ultimate reality underlying all phenomena in the Hindu scriptures.
23) Caste (n) 1 Latin castus each of the hereditary classes of Hindu society, distinguished by relative degrees of ritual purity or pollution and of social status. 2 any exclusive social class.
24) Chakra (n) Sanskrit cakra. any of several points of physical or spiritual energy in the human body according to yoga philosophy
25) Chariot (n) a two-wheeled horse-drawn battle car of ancient times used also in processions and races
26) Chukker (n) Sanskrit Cakra, Hindi Chakkar, A Circle, A Wheel
27) Deva, Diva (n) Sanskrit Deva, Which Means "A God". Diva Means Day Like In Divakara, Sun Who Makes The Day.
28) Devi (n) Sanskrit Devi, Which Means "A Goddess".
29) Dharma (n) 1Hinduism : an individual's duty fulfilled by observance of custom or law 2Hinduism & Buddhism a: the basic principles of cosmic or individual existence : divine law b: conformity to one's duty and nature
30) Diwali (n) a Hindu festival with lights, held in October and November to celebrate the end of the monsoon.
31) Elixir:
(n) a (1): a substance held capable of changing base metals into gold (2): a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely b (1): cure-all (2): a medicinal concoction
32) Fakir (n) Arabic faqīr b: an itinerant Hindu ascetic or wonder-worker
33) Ganesh (n) Via Hindi Gaŋeś Ultimately From Sanskrit Gaŋeśa.
34) Guru (n) Sanskrit 1: a personal religious teacher and spiritual guide in Hinduism
35) Hanuman (n) Through Hindi From Sanskrit Hanuman, A Kind Of Small Monkey, Hindu God.
36) Hare Krishna (n) Hindi. A member of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness, a religious sect based on the worship of the Hindu god Krishna.
37) Himalaya (n) Sanskrit Himalayah, Which Means "Place Of Snow".Mountains S Asia on border between India & Tibet & in Kashmir, Nepal, & Bhutan
38) Hindi (n) Hindi Hind, 1 : a literary and official language of northern India 2 : a complex of Indo-Aryan languages and dialects of northern India for which Hindi is the usual literary language
39) Hindu (n) Persian Hindu a follower of Hinduism. 1 : an adherent of
Hinduism 2 : a native or inhabitant of India
40) Indra (n) A Prominent Vedic God, In Charge Of Rain And Thunder.
41) Jungle (n) Sanskrit Jangala-S, Hindi Jangal 1 a: an impenetrable thicket or tangled mass of tropical vegetation b: a tract overgrown with thickets or masses of vegetation
42) Kali (n) Sanskrit Kali. the Hindu goddess of death and destruction
43) Kama Sutra (n) Sanskrit Kāma Sutra, Which Means Kāma "Desire" And Sutra.
44) Karma (n) Sanskrit Karman 1. often capitalized : the force generated by a person's actions held in Hinduism and Buddhism to perpetuate transmigration and in its ethical consequences to determine the nature of the person's next existence
45) Krishna (n) Sanskrit Krshnah a deity or deified hero of later Hinduism worshipped as an incarnation of Vishnu
46) Kshatriya (n) Sanskrit kṣatriya a Hindu of an upper caste traditionally assigned to governing and military occupations
47) Kumkum (n) a red pigment used by Hindu women to make a mark on the forehead.
48) Loka (n) Sanskrit "World, Habitat, Realm, or Plane of Existence." Self: The Nearest English Equivalent of the Sanskrit Word “Atman”, the Essential Divinity of an Individual.
49) Mahabharata (n) Sanskrit Mahābhāratam, Great Epic - Story Of The Bhāratas.
50) Maharishi (n) Sanskrit maha̱rṣi 1. A great Hindu sage or spiritual leader 2. A Hindu teacher of mystical knowledge.
51) Mahatma (n) Sanskrit Mahatman 1 : a person to be revered for high-mindedness, wisdom, and selflessness
52) Manas (n) Polynesian origin "Mind" L. Mens, Mentis (Mental; Mint, "Think") 1 : the power of the elemental forces of nature embodied in an object or person
53) Mandala (n) Sanskrit Mandala 1: a Hindu or Buddhist graphic symbol of the universe ; specifically : a circle enclosing a square with a deity on each side that is used chiefly as an aid to meditation
54) Mantra (n) Sanskrit Mantra-S a mystical formula of invocation or incantation (as in Hinduism) (Mantra, "A Repeated Word" E.G. Om/Aum)
55) Manu (n) Sanskrit The progenitor of the human race and giver of the religious laws of Manu according to Hindu mythology
56) Maya (n) Sanskrit Maya the sense-world of manifold phenomena held in Vedanta to conceal the unity of absolute being
57) Mitra (n) Sanskrit Mitrah, Which Means "A Friend".
58) Moksha (n) Sanskrit Moksha, Liberation From The Cycle Of Death And Rebirth.
59) Namaste (n) Sanskrit Namas-Te, Hindi "Bowing To You".
60) Nirvana (n) Sanskrit Nirvana-S 1: the final beatitude that transcends suffering, karma, and samsara and is sought especially in Buddhism through the extinction of desire and individual consciousness
61) Palanquin (n) Through Malay And Javanese Palangki Ultimately From Sanskrit Palyanka-S, a conveyance formerly used especially in eastern Asia usually for one person that consists of an enclosed litter borne on the shoulders of men by means of poles
62) Pandit (n) Hindi paṇḍit, from Sanskrit paṇḍita 1. A Hindu scholar learned in Sanskrit and Hindu philosophy and religion. 2. a wise or learned man in India —often used as an honorary title also Pundit
63) Parvati (n) Sanskrit Pārvati, Which Means "A Mountain River" Or The Daughter Of Parvataraja, The Himalaya Mountain, Also Consort Of Lord Shiva.
64) Pipal (n) Sanskrit Pippalam, Hindi large long-lived fig (Ficus religiosa) of India
65) Prakrit (n) Sanskrit Prakrta any or all of the ancient Indo-Aryan languages or dialects other than Sanskrit
66) Pukka (n) Hindi Pakkā Meaning "Cooked", Ultimately From Sanskrit Pakva.
67) Pundit (n) see pandit
68) Purana (n) Sanskrit Puranah,
one of a class of Hindu sacred writings chiefly from a.d. 300 to a.d. 750 comprising popular myths and legends and other traditional lore
69) Raga (n) Hindi Sanskrit Rāgah, 1 : one of the ancient traditional melodic patterns or modes in Indian music 2 : an improvisation based on a traditional raga
70) Rajoguna: (n) Sanskrit One Of The Three Aspects Of Component Traits Of Cosmic Energy; The Principle Of Dynamism In Nature Bringing About All Changes; Through This Is Projected The Relative Appearance Of The Absolute As The Universe; This Quality Generates Passion And Restlessness.
71) Rajput (n) Hindi & Urdu rajut, from Sanskrit rajaputra a member of a dominant military caste of northern India
72) Rama (n) Sanskrit Ramah a deity or deified hero of later Hinduism worshipped as an avatar of Vishnu – Rama the Hero of Ramayan – Prince Ayoddhi (Kingdom)
73) Ramayana (n) Sanskrit Rāmāyanam, Which Means "The Gait Of Rama". A Holy Narrative of Lord Rama.
74) Rice (n) Via Old French And Italian From Latin Oriza, Which Is From Greek Oryza, Through An Indo-Iranian Tongue Finally From Sanskrit Vrihi-S "Rice", Tamil Origin Is Also Possible. Tamil Word Is "Arisi” the starchy seeds of an annual southeast Asian cereal grass (Oryza sativa) that are cooked and used for food ; also : this cereal grass that is widely cultivated in warm climates for its seeds and by-products
75) Rigveda (n) Sanskrit Rigveda, "Knowledge Of Praise".

76) Rishi, (n) Sanskrit A Sage
77) Rudra (n) Sanskrit, Lord Sivah.
78) Sadhu (n) Sanskrit Sādhu. a usually Hindu mendicant ascetic
79) Samadhi (n) Sanskrit Samadhi, "Putting Together".
80) Samsara (n) Sanskrit Samsara "Passing Through". the indefinitely repeated cycles of birth, misery, and death caused by karma
81) Sandhi (n) Sanskrit Samdhih, Sanskrit saṁdhi, literally, placing together modification of the sound of a morpheme (as a word or affix) conditioned by syntactic context in which it is uttered
82) Sanskrit (n) Sanskrit saṁskṛta, literally, perfected, from sam together + karoti he makes "Put Together, Well-Formed". 1 : an ancient Indo-Aryan language that is the classical language of India and of Hinduism 2 : classical Sanskrit together with the older Vedic and various later modifications of classical Sanskrit
83) Sarasvati (n) Sanskrit Sarasvati, Name Of A Holy Stream. Hindu goddess
84) Sattva (n) Sanskrit Sattvah, "Truth".
85) Shatam (n) Sanskrit "Hundred"=L. Centum (Cent, Century, Centime)
86) Shiva Or Siva (n) Through Hindi Ultimately From Sanskrit Sivah, the god of destruction and regeneration in the Hindu sacred triad — compare
brahma , vishnu
87) Siddha (n) Sanskrit Siddhah, Which Means "Achieved, Accomplished". Siddhi Literally Means Absolute Or Total Understanding; Enlightenment (A State Of Being "Buddha", Also Called "Siddha"). Additionally, The Word Is Frequently (Siddhis In Plural) Used To Mean The Paranormal Powers Possessed By Saints, Mystics, Mantriks, And Tantriks. The Word Is Accepted In New English Oxford Dictionary
88) Sparsa: (n) Sanskrit Sparsa Touch.
89) Sudra (n) Sanskrit a member of the worker caste, lowest of the four Hindu castes.
90) Sutra (n) Sanskrit sūtra precept, literally, thread Sutram "A Rule". 1: a precept summarizing Vedic teaching ; also : a collection of these precepts2: one of the discourses of the Buddha that constitute the basic text of Buddhist scripture
91) Svastika, (n) Sanskrit "Cross Of Good Fortune, Auspicious Sign", Akin To Svasti, A Salutation Meaning "Be Well" see Swastika
92) Swami (n) Hindi svāmī, from Sanskrit svāmin owner, lord, from sva one's own 1: a Hindu ascetic or religious teacher ; specifically : a senior member of a religious order —used as a title2: one that resembles or emulates a swami
93) Swastika see Svastika
94) Tamas: (n) Sanskrit Tamas Ignorance; Inertia; Darkness; Perishability.
95) Tantra (n) Sanskrit, literally, warp, from tanoti he stretches, weaves 1. One of the later Hindu or Buddhist scriptures dealing especially with techniques and rituals including meditative and sexual practices; also: the rituals or practices outlined in the tantra 2. Refers To A Hindu Or Buddhist Spiritual Sadhana That Is Performed Using Yantra, Mantra, And Specific Rituals.
96) Tat (n) Sanskrit "That"
97) Tva (n) Sanskrit "You"=L. Tu/Te/Tua, Fr. Toi (Thou, Thee)
98) Untouchable (n) a member of the lowest-caste Hindu group
99) Upanishad (n) Sanskrit upaniṣad 1. Each of a series of Hindu sacred books written in Sanskrit and explaining the philosophy introduced in the Veda. 2. one of a class of Vedic treatises dealing with broad philosophic problems
100) Vaisya (n) a member of the third of the four Hindu castes, comprising merchants and farmers.
101) Varuna (n) Sanskrit Varunah, The Lord Of Oceans.
102) Veda (n) Sanskrit, literally, knowledge 1. Any of four canonical collections of hymns, prayers, and liturgical formulas that comprise the earliest Hindu sacred writings 2. A generic name for the most ancient Indian sacred literature, i.e. The Rg-Veda, Yajur-Veda, Sama-Veda and Atharva-Veda. Each Of These Books Is Divided Into Two Portions, Mantra And Brahmana. The Term Veda Is Generally Reserved For The Mantras Or Metrical Hymns, Especially Those Of The Rg-Veda. Sri Aurobindo Has Translated and/Or Commented On Many of the Vedic Hymns. Most Of His Writings Related To The Vedas Have Been Collected In Volumes And Of The Sri Aurobindo Birth Centenary Library (SABCL), The Secret Of The Veda, And Hymns To The Mystic Fire.
103) Vedanta (n) Sanskrit Vedanta, literally, end of the Veda, from Veda + anta end 1. An orthodox system of Hindu philosophy developing especially in a qualified monism the speculations of the Upanishads on ultimate reality and the liberation of the soul 2. A Hindu philosophy based on the teachings of the Upanishads.
104) Vimana (n) Sanskrit Vimana Meaning Plane, Also Referred To The Top Of The Temple Tower, Sanctum Santorum.
105) Vishnu (n) Sanskrit Vishnu the preserver god of the Hindu sacred triad — compare
brahma , shiva.
106) Vritra (n) Sanskrit A Snake-Demon And The Leader Of The Danavas.
107) Yoga (n) Sanskrit, literally, yoking, from yunakti he yokes 1 capitalized : a Hindu theistic philosophy teaching the suppression of all activity of body, mind, and will in order that the self may realize its distinction from them and attain liberation2: a system of exercises for attaining bodily or mental control and well-being
108) Yogi Sanskrit yogin, from yoga 1: a person who practices yoga 2. capitalized : an adherent of Yoga philosophy3: a markedly reflective or mystical person


1) AskOxford: Free online dictionary resources from Oxford University http;//
2) Compact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English http;//
3) Hindu English Dictionary a Wisdom Archive on Hindu English Dictionary Http://Www.Experiencefestival.Com/Hindu English Dictionary/Page/
4) Language in India
5) List Of English Words Of Sanskrit Origin Http://En.Wikipedia.Org/Wiki/List_Of_English_Words_Of_Sanskrit_Origin
6) List Of Hindu Deities Http://En.Wikipedia.Org/Wiki/List_Of_Hindu_Deities
7) Merriam-Webster Online search -
8) Sanskrit

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